Streaming Vs Non-Streaming Operators¶
In general, data sources are accessed in “streaming” mode. This means that Denodo retrieves data in blocks from the data sources as they are needed, instead of loading in memory the entire result set returned by the data source before start processing them. Many of the data transformation and combination operations, such as some types of joins, unions, selections and projections, are also performed in “streaming” mode, considering only a few rows at a time.
When the data sources are accessed in streaming mode and their data is combined using exclusively streaming operators, the memory consumption of the query is minimal, no matter how many rows are processed. Even the execution of a join between very large tables from different data sources where Denodo processes many millions of rows consumes a minimal amount of memory, when the join is executed using a streaming operator.
The section Edge Cases in Streaming Operation describes several exceptions to this rule, where even streaming operations can consume a significant amount of memory.
There are some data transformation/combination operators that cannot be performed in streaming mode. These non-streaming operators can cause a query to consume a significant amount of memory when the number of rows they need to process is large.
The non-streaming operators are:
Hash joins. Joins that use the hash execution method, load in memory all the rows from the view of the right side of the join. Notice that, if there are applicable selection conditions on that view, they will be applied before executing the join. However, if these conditions do not exist or are not very selective, it may still be needed to load a large number of rows in memory.
The left view of the join is accessed in streaming mode, so its size does not significantly increase memory consumption. Notice that joins using other execution methods such as merge and nested can be run in streaming mode and, therefore, do not consume large amounts of memory.
The section Optimizing Join Operations explains how each join execution method works.
Minus and Intersect operations. These operations are executed by Denodo in a way similar to hash joins. Therefore, the same memory considerations apply to them.
Subqueries in the WHERE clause of the query that use the hash method. These subqueries are executed using the internal operator “semijoin”. This operator behaves similarly to joins and it admits three execution methods: hash, merge and nested.
You can see the method used to execute a subquery in the execution trace of the query.
The section “Subqueries in the WHERE Clause of the Query” of the Advanced VQL Guide provides more information about each semijoin method and how to select the one you want.
Order By. Sorting is an inherently “non-streamable” operation: you need to load all data before producing the first row at the output. If the data to sort is large, this operation can consume a significant amount of memory.
Group By. Group by operations are executed in streaming mode when the data is sorted by the group by fields. In this case, the memory consumption is usually minimal, especially when the
SELECTclause of the query only uses “cumulative” aggregation functions (i.e.:
MIN). Otherwise, Virtual DataPort uses the execution method “hash group by”, which may consume a significant amount of memory.
SELECT DISTINCT. The SELECT DISTINCT operation is executed in a way very similar to Group By operations. Therefore, the same considerations that apply to Group By operations also apply to them
The section Limit the Maximum Amount of Memory of a Query explains how to limit the memory occupied by a query that uses these operators.
When a query uses non-streaming operators and in addition, it processes a large number of rows, then the memory settings comes into play. The next section explains the memory swapping parameters, which are used to avoid that non-streaming operations exhaust the available memory.